I Heard it Through the GrapevineReviewed by Trudier Harris Emory University

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I Heard it Through the Grapevine

Reviewed by Trudier Harris Emory University Emory University ( near Atlanta, Ga.; coeducational; United Methodist; chartered as Emory College 1836, opened 1837 at Oxford. It became Emory Univ. in 1915 and in 1919 moved to Atlanta.

Seldom does reading a scholarly book become a page turning adventure, but that is what happened for me with Patricia Turner's I Heart It Through the Grapevine, a study of rumor in African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. communities. With a flowing writing style, Turner achieves her first objective of making the book accessible to academics as well as to persons outside the academy, such as some of her informants, whose literacy skills range widely. Setting as her task the exploration of rumors that have persisted among African Americans

even when conclusive evidence CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE. That which cannot be contradicted by any other evidence,; for example, cheap christian louboutin a record, unless impeached for fraud, is conclusive evidence between the parties. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061 62. has proved otherwise Turner explores the historical significance and contemporary function of several rumors. chain of fast food restaurants specializing in fried chicken. The chain was founded as Church's Fried Chicken To Go by George W. Church, Sr. on April 17, 1952 in San Antonio, across the street from The Alamo. has an ingredient that sterilizes black men, that the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan (k' kl kl designation mainly given to two distinct secret societies that played a part in American history, although other less important groups have also used owns the popular Troop sportswear line, that profits from Reebok Ree

n. 1. (Zool.) The peele. shoes are used to support the ruling white elite in South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. , and that the Ku Klux Klan, in cahoots christian louboutin wedding shoes with the FBI, murdered the black children in Atlanta between 1979 and 1981. Turner devotes an entire chapter to rumors surrounding the prevalence of drugs in African American communities, particularly crack; in this case, Turner's informants claim government conspiracy in the attempted extermination extermination

mass killing of animals or other pests. Implies complete destruction of the species or other group. of blacks in America. her study, Turner devotes the first two chapters to historical materials, beginning with misperceptions Africans and Europeans had of each other (Topsy/Eva cycles of rumors) regarding a propensity to cannibalism cannibalism (k [Span. can referring to the Carib], eating of human flesh by other humans. (each thought the other guilty of the practice). She cites the Amistad mutiny Amistad mutiny

(July 2, 1839) Slave rebellion aboard the schooner Amistad. The revolt took place off the coast of Cuba when 53 Africans who had been abducted from Sierra Leone for the slave trade, seized control christian louboutin london of the ship, killed the captain and cook, and ordered the as one instance in which a belief that whites would eat them led blacks to rise up against their captors. Turner makes clear that hundreds of years connect rumors that focus on violation of black bodies during racist encounters between blacks and whites from Africa, through slavery, and into riots of the twentieth century. Capable of reproducing; generative.

2. Of or directed to procreation. and reproductive functions in African Americans, or the claim that whites need black "bodies or body parts to survive," can be traced back to fear of black bodies (and the desire to conquer that fear by controlling black bodies), exploitation of black bodies sexually, and consumption of black bodies (figuratively in the stealing of black labor during slavery). Black male bodies have been more frequently targeted in the rumors Turner explores.

From her historical contextualizing, Turner moves to focus on contemporary conspiracy theories those serving to explain christian louboutin sale reputed Klan owned businesses in black communities; the assassinations of John F. Kennedy "John Kennedy" and "JFK" redirect here. For other uses, see John Kennedy (disambiguation) and JFK (disambiguation).

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 22, 1963), was the thirty fifth President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in , Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert Kennedy, and Malcolm X Malcolm X, 1925 militant black leader in the United States, also known as El Hajj Malik El Shabazz, b. Malcolm Little in Omaha, Neb. He was introduced to the Black Muslims while serving a prison term and became a Muslim minister upon his release in 1952. ; and Klan involvement in the Atlanta child murders The Atlanta child murders, known locally simply as the "missing and murdered children case", were a series of murders committed in Atlanta, Georgia from the summer of 1979 until the spring of 1981. . To make impure or unclean by contact or mixture.

2. To expose to or permeate with radioactivity. black mulberry outlet bodies being cited as the demonic offenders. Turner's informants illustrate that beliefs about the Klan loom large in the African American psyche. As the oldest and most virulent white supremacist group in America, with a strong history of anti black sentiments, the Klan becomes the easy target for many feelings of ill being among African Americans. Despite claims of Klan members that they do not deal in certain products, or that they would have nothing to do "with a bunch of gooks" (in the Korean based Troop Sportswear rumor), they remain the most frequently targeted source among African Americans for rumors of conspiracy theories.

[Latin d by a court settlement a black woman won against them, to generalized ideas that the Klan wants to destroy the black race, or see blacks suffer, or generally keep the race down economically and socially.

Turner also devotes chapters specifically to rumors surrounding contamination theories (interferon, AIDS), corporate conspiracy theories (food, beverages, cigarettes, mulberry factory shop athletic shoes), and theories about crack and its current place in African American communities. Since Turner's primary focus is upon four or five cycles of rumors, the chapters necessarily repeat some of the material she has presented previously as she attempts to analyze the rumor phenomenon from various angles for its historical, cultural, and psychological value. African Americans, she concludes, have devised specific, rumor dependent ways of responding to news or crises that affect them as well as the larger society. When research on interferon promised it as a miracle cure for cancer, and those claims were simultaneous with the unsolved murders in Atlanta, African Americans closed the information gap by asserting that young black males were being killed for the substance (extracted from their penises) necessary to complete research on interferon. Since the Centers for Disease Control, located in Atlanta, had allowed the research to continue for decades on the black men in Tuskegee who had been contaminated contaminated,

v mulberry handbags outlet 1. made radioactive by the addition of small quantities of radioactive material.

2. made contaminated by adding infective or radiographic materials.

3. an infective surface or object. with syphilis, then why would it not condone a usage of black male bodies in the Atlanta child murders? Similarly, at a time when officials and legislators were decrying the use of public funds to support welfare, and pointing their fingers at black women as conspicuous abusers, why would such officials, in conspiracy with the medical profession, not use the Norplant implants to retard permanently, not temporarily the reproductive capabilities of black women?

Turner ends her book with an epilogue that focuses on Norplant and other rumors that she could not, given the time frame for the publication of her book, pursue in more detail. She offers these as areas deserving further research and raises questions pertinent to that research. For the rumors on which she conducted extensive research, she not only mulberry york outlet uses rumor theory in conjunction with historical, folkloristic, and other cultural materials, but she conducted hundreds of interviews with informants and, impressively, wrote to representatives of all the agencies that were the objects of the rumors. 1501 et seq.) and began operations in January 1989. , whose very literate and detailed letter reveals more about the gaps among him, his company, and African Americans than about the specific information Turner had requested on governmental conspiracy in connection with drugs. She also garnered informative letters from incarcerated incarcerated // (in kahrser at?ed) imprisoned; constricted; subjected to incarceration.

Confined or trapped, as a hernia. black men, and she completed case studies of two well educated perpetuators of rumors about crack in an effort to show how strong the rhetorical power and cultural identification with rumor can be. In addition, Turner uses movies such as Boyz 'N the Hood to shed further light on her analysis of crack and conspiracy.

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